BJ-5ta Exo had previously been shown to provide benefits in addressing various skin defects, including aging, atopic dermatitis, and wounds, but the potential impact on ultraviolet B (UVB)-mediated photoaging remained unexplored.
Therefore, this study by South Korean researchers aimed to investigate the anti-photoaging effects of BJ-5ta Exo on UVB radiation in both human skin fibroblasts and SKH-1 hairless mice.
The results demonstrated that BJ-5ta Exo mitigated UVB-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, preserved the expression levels of antioxidant enzymes, and exhibited scavenging activity against oxidative stress. Additionally, BJ-5ta Exo facilitated DNA double-strand break repair, inhibited UVB-induced senescence, and activated the TGF-β1/Smad pathway.
Ultraviolet radiation (UVR), particularly UVB, poses a significant threat to the skin, leading to photoaging and various skin pathologies.
The study focused on UVB, known for its impact on the epidermis, oxidative stress induction, and DNA damage. Repetitive UVB exposure elevates ROS levels, initiating processes that contribute to carcinogenesis, cell senescence, and skin ageing.
The skin's protective mechanisms, including antioxidant enzymes, can be overwhelmed by excessive ROS, emphasizing the need for interventions to mitigate UVB-induced damage.
Human foreskin fibroblasts (BJ-5ta cells) were utilized to assess the effects of BJ-5ta Exo on UVB-induced photoageing.
The study incorporated in vitro experiments using cell cultures and in vivo investigations employing SKH-1 hairless mice. Key parameters evaluated included ROS levels, antioxidant enzyme expression, DNA repair mechanisms, cellular senescence markers, and the impact on collagen and elastin networks.
BJ-5ta Exo demonstrated a capacity to reduce UVB-induced ROS production, maintain antioxidant enzyme expression, and counteract oxidative stress. The protective effects extended to the prevention of UVB-induced DNA damage, as indicated by reduced γH2AX levels and enhanced DNA repair through RAD51. Furthermore, BJ-5ta Exo exhibited anti-senescence properties by downregulating p53 and p21 and inhibiting apoptosis-related cleaved PARP levels.
In both in vitro and in vivo models, BJ-5ta Exo emerged as a promising agent against UVB-mediated photoaging. The protective effects encompassed the preservation of skin barrier function, suppression of wrinkle formation, and regulation of collagen and elastin levels. The study’s comprehensive exploration suggests that BJ-5ta Exo could be a valuable component in cosmetic formulations aimed at preventing and treating photoaging-associated skin conditions.
Further analysis of the exosome cargo, including proteins, lipids, and RNAs, holds the potential for enhancing our understanding of their therapeutic mechanisms. Future research avenues should focus on refining formulations and conducting clinical studies to validate the efficacy of BJ-5ta Exo in cosmetic applications.