The antimicrobial function was accounted for by the synergistic effects between the bioactive ingredients found in the mangosteen peel extract and excipients in a shampoo formulation created by researchers.
“Although the extract alone did not exhibit potent antifungal activity, the formulation of various excipients in the final formula significantly enhanced the activity, which was about two to 16-fold stronger,” said the researchers.
All the mangosteen peel extract shampoo samples were also found to have high antioxidant activities, with at least two-fold more free scavenging activity than the other marketed shampoos, they added.
Antioxidants in hair shampoo stabilise proteins and amino acids in the hair, thereby creating a barrier against the oxidative damage on the hair and scalp. Oxidative stress also contributes to hair aging.
Researchers also highlighted that dandruff is directly associated with the hair scalp condition.
The study also found that its physical and chemical properties remained stable when mixed with multiple excipients. It was pH-balanced as well, ranging between 5.5 and 5.9, making it suitable as a scalp treatment shampoo.
Funded by the Malaysian Ministry of Higher Education, the results were based on clinical tests around hair shampoo with mangosteen peel extract.
The peel extract of the mangosteen species Garcinia mangostana is usually discarded as waste in the agriculture sector. Plant ingredients in general contain bioactives and excipients that could nourish the scalp, relieve dryness, protect the hair and scalp from oxidative damage and more.
That said, researchers wanted to put to test the effectiveness of phytochemicals found in the peel on maintaining healthy hair and scalp.
Some of these phytochemicals include anthocyanins, xanthones, phenolic acids, flavonoids, and flavanols, known to exhibit antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties.
Researchers put to test six products, including three shampoos containing 0.125%, 0.25% and 0.50% mangosteen peel extract; a shampoo base without mangosteen peel extract; and two commercial shampoos.
The phytochemical properties including physical appearance, pH level, foaming ability, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities, as well as stability were assessed. A statistical analysis was then conducted to determine the result significance.
The researchers concluded the study highlighting the promising bioactivities associated with botanical and naturally derived ingredients in hair shampoo formulations. It also warranted further studies to be undertaken on patients with dandruff to prove the efficacy of the product.
“Formulation of Botanical Shampoo Infused with Standardised Mangosteen Peel Extract for Healthy Hair and Scalp”
Authors: Sang, S.H, et al.